Techno-economic and ecological performance comparison of greenhouse gas-neutral fuel / drive combinations for heavy trucks
In recent years, a number of fuel and drive combinations have been discussed in order to diversify the dominance of diesel in the field of heavy haulage and long-distance transport and to introduce renewable fuels in this technically and economically challenging environment. In this study, LBST and its partner Hinicio carried out an analysis of the current situation, which discusses the advantages and disadvantages of various fuel-drive combinations as well as technology options and political levers for modern, greenhouse gas-neutral road freight transport.
The following fuel-drive combinations were considered in the study with a short-term (2020+) and long-term time horizon (2030+):
- Diesel (both crude oil-based and renewable electricity-based liquid fuels) in the internal combustion engine;
- CNG or LNG in the combustion engine (based on both fossil and renewable power-to-methane);
- Electricity-based hydrogen fuel cell vehicle (H2 / FCEV) based on both natural gas and renewable power-to-hydrogen;
- Battery-electric vehicles with pantographs (based on both electricity mix and 100% renewable electricity).
The study was carried out under the lead responsibility of the LBST. The main focus of the study at LBST was on life cycle analyzes (greenhouse gas emissions, regulated pollutant emissions, accumulated energy use), techno-economic analyzes (fuel production, transport and distribution, vehicle investments and costs for vehicle operation and maintenance) as well as on regulatory aspects.